The world´s first known author is widely considered to be Enheduanna, a woman who lived in the 23rd century BCE in ancient Mesopotamia (approximately 2285-2250 BCE) . Enheduanna is a remarkable figure: an ancient triple threat", she was a princess and a priestess as well as writer and poet.
The third millennium BCE was a time of upheaval in Mesopotamia. The conquest of Sargon the Great saw the development of the world´s first great empire. The city of Akkad become one of the largest in the world, and northern and southern Mesopotamia were united for the first time in history.
In this extraordinary historical setting, we find the fascinating character of Enheduanna, Sargon´s daughter.She worked as the high princess of the moon deity Nanna-Suen at his temple in Ur (in modern-day Southern Iraq). The celestial nature of her occupation is reflected in her name, meaning "Ornament of Heaven".
Enheduanna composed several works of literature, including two hymmns to the Mesopotamian love goddess Inanna (Semitic Ishtar). She wrote the myth of Inaanna and Ebih, and a collection of 42 temple hymns, Scribal traditions in the ancient world are often considered an area of male authority, but Enheduanna´s works form an important part of Mesopotamis´s rich lietracy history.
Enheduanna´s status as a named poet is significant and given the anonymity surrounding works of even earlier authors. Yet she is almost entirely unknown in the modern day, and her achievements have been largely overlooked ( a notable exception is the work of Jungian analyst Betty De Shong Meador). Her written works are deeply personal in subject, containing numerous biograhical features.
In her hymns, Enheduanna comments on the challenge of encapsulating divine wonders through the wrtitten word. She describea apending long hours labouring over her compositions by night, for them then to be performed in the day. The fruits of her works are dedicated to the goddess of love.
Enheduanna´s poetry has a reflective quality that emphasises the superlative qualities of its divine muse, while also highlights the artistic skill required for wrtitten compositions.
Her written praise of celectial deities has been recognised in the field of modern astronomy. Her descriptions of stellar measurments and movements have been described as possible early scientific observations. Indeed, a crater on Mercury was named in her nonour in 2015.
Enheduanna´s works were written in cuneiform, an ancient form of writing using clay tablets but have only survived in the form of much later copies from around 1800 BCE, from the Old Babylonian period and later. The lack of earlier sources has raised doubts for some over Enheduanna´s identifications as the author of myths and hymns and her status as a religious official of high rank. However, the historial record clearly identifies Enheduanna as the composer of ancient literary works, and this is undoubtedly an important aspect of the traditionns surrounding her.
Of the other hand of this Post with the Art Market we are always surprise about results, and who is On and who is Out.
Here we comapre past and current sales artworks and see how the market develops in real time.
Here some highlights of our favorite recent auction highlights:
George Condo, Day of the Idol.
2018: Purchased for $2.78 m
2019: Sold for $3.74m
35 % increase in 1 year.
Zao Wou-Ki, Juin-Octobre 1985
2005: Purchased for $2,32m
2018: Sold for $65.20m
2,710%increase in 13 years
Joan Mitchell, Rhubard
1988: Purchased for 99k
2019: Sold for $4.15m
4,090% increase in 31 years
Claude MOnet, Meules
1986: Purchased for $2.53m
2019:Sold for $110.75m
4,280% increase in 33 years.